The mechanism of age related decreases in serum testosterone levels has also been the subject of investigation. Metabolic clearance declines with age but this effect is less pronounced than a reduction in testosterone production, so the overall effect is to reduce serum testosterone levels. Gonadotrophin levels rise during aging (Feldman et al 2002) and testicular secretory responses to recombinant human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are reduced (Mulligan et al 1999, 2001). This implies that the reduced production may be caused by primary testicular failure but in fact these changes are not adequate to fully explain the fall in testosterone levels. There are changes in the lutenising hormone (LH) production which consist of decreased LH pulse frequency and amplitude, (Veldhuis et al 1992; Pincus et al 1997) although pituitary production of LH in response to pharmacological stimulation with exogenous GnRH analogues is preserved (Mulligan et al 1999). It therefore seems likely that there are changes in endogenous production of GnRH which underlie the changes in LH secretion and have a role in the age related decline in testosterone. Thus the decreases in testosterone levels with aging seem to reflect changes at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. With advancing age there is also a reduction in androgen receptor concentration in some target tissues and this may contribute to the clinical syndrome of LOH (Ono et al 1988; Gallon et al 1989).

Use natural grooming products. Most grooming products these days contain parabens, another type of xenoestrogen. And by most, I mean more than 75% of all products. To reduce my exposure as much as possible, I became a hippy during my experiment and started using all natural, paraben-free grooming products. You can find most of these items at most health food stores:
Take 1 teaspoon. Incredibly dense in nutrients and feed by bees to the larvae who grows on to be the queen bee. I found one human study where a 4g daily serving led to an small increase in testosterone in older men (ref 78). There are also numerous animal studies (ref 79) showing positive effects. Personally I source NZ manuka royal jelly from Manuka Health.
In accordance with sperm competition theory, testosterone levels are shown to increase as a response to previously neutral stimuli when conditioned to become sexual in male rats.[40] This reaction engages penile reflexes (such as erection and ejaculation) that aid in sperm competition when more than one male is present in mating encounters, allowing for more production of successful sperm and a higher chance of reproduction.
Beast Sports Nutrition - Super Test has all four of our dream ingredients: magnesium, fenugreek, longjack, and zinc. These ingredients have all been demonstrated to help increase natural testosterone levels, with plenty of scientific research to support them (done on humans too, and not just rats). By combining all four ingredients, Super Test has the best chance of helping to increase your testosterone levels, and thereby helping you gain muscle or have a more active sex life.
A: Depo-Testosterone is a brand name medication that contains testosterone cypionate. Depo-Testosterone is given as an intramuscular injection. The medication is indicated for replacement therapy for men that have conditions associated with symptoms of deficiency in the hormone or absence of testosterone produced in the body. Conditions that can be associated with low testosterone include: delayed puberty, impotence and hormonal imbalances. Testosterone is a sex hormone that is naturally produced in the male testicles. In women, small amounts of testosterone is produced in the ovaries and by the adrenal system. Testosterone is available in various medications for testosterone replacement therapy. Different forms of testosterone (e.g. cypionate, enanthate etc) are contained in different brand name medications. Jen Marsico, RPh

Dixon Troyer is the President of Operations at 3 Elements Lifestyle, LLC., a Fitness and Weight Loss company that specializes in YOU! With more than 15 years of gym and club experience, owning, operating and managing clubs of all sizes, Dixon lectures, delivers seminars and workshops on the practical skills required to successfully help you with your health and fitness goals. Dixon also helps you build the teamwork, management, and training necessary to open your own fitness center.
Popular through the centuries in Ayurvedic healing (a traditional practice of medicine in India) ashwagandha is what is known as an "adaptogen." This means the body may be able to use it to help adapt to stressors. While many people supplement with it for reducing cortisol, anxiety, and fatigue levels, ashwagandha also holds relevance for us here with potential testosterone boosting benefits.[8]
The Organon group in the Netherlands were the first to isolate the hormone, identified in a May 1935 paper "On Crystalline Male Hormone from Testicles (Testosterone)".[180] They named the hormone testosterone, from the stems of testicle and sterol, and the suffix of ketone. The structure was worked out by Schering's Adolf Butenandt, at the Chemisches Institut of Technical University in Gdańsk.[181][182]
A large number of side-effects have been attributed to testosterone. In our clinical experience, the incidence of significant adverse effects with treatment producing physiological testosterone levels is low, and many side effects attributed to testosterone are mainly relevant to supraphysiological replacement. Some adverse effects are specific to a given mode of delivery and have already been described. Potential adverse effects concerning the prostate have also been discussed and require appropriate monitoring of symptoms, PSA and digital rectal examination. Other tumors which may be androgen responsive include cancer of the breast and primary liver tumors, and these are both contraindications to testosterone treatment
It is important to note that you can certainly boost testosterone naturally without supplementation. Supplements are expensive now a days and a lot of people do not like taking tons of pills. Plus, a lot of these vitamins and minerals are only needed if deficient, so I recommend getting routine blood work done to see where you are short. I can almost guarantee you will come out vitamin D deficient, so while you don’t have to take these, they will certainly help.
Why bother with such common micronutrients? Because it's not uncommon for athletes to suffer from zinc and magnesium deficiencies, partly due to inadequate replenishing of levels after intense bouts of exercise. Deficiencies in these key minerals can lead to a poor anabolic hormone profile, impaired immune function, and increased cortisol, ultimately leading to decreases in strength and performance.[6]
Travison, T. G., Vesper, H. W., Orwoll, E, Wu, F., Kaufman, J. M., Wang, Y., …Bhasin, S. (2017, April1). Harmonized reference ranges for circulating testosterone levels in men of four cohort studies in the United States and Europe. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 102(4), 1161–1173. Retrieved from
The steroid hormone known as dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA, plays an important role in sexual behavior, mental health and muscle growth. Your body uses this hormone to make sex steroids. Thus, taking a DHEA supplement should increase your circulating testosterone. A 2018 paper in the International Journal of Sports Medicine explored this possibility in athletic women.
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Sexual arousal - boosting testosterone can improve sexual arousal, even if you have normal testosterone levels. Higher levels of testosterone can make it easier for you to get aroused and can boost your sex drive generally. While this doesn’t affect the physical action of your erections, if you are not getting hard because you’re not aroused then boosting testosterone could help.
The biggest change I made to my diet was increasing my fat and cholesterol intake. There’s a reason why old school strong men would drink raw eggs — studies have suggested that higher fat and cholesterol consumption results in increased levels of total T; men eating low-fat diets typically have decreased testosterone levels. The emphasis on increasing fat and cholesterol consumption meant I got to eat like Ron Swanson for three months — bacon and eggs and steak was pretty much the staple of my diet.
14. Volek JS, Volk BM, Gómez AL, Kunces LJ, Kupchak BR, Freidenreich DJ, Aristizabal JC, Saenz C, Dunn-Lewis C, Ballard KD, Quann EE, Kawiecki DL, Flanagan SD, Comstock BA, Fragala MS, Earp JE, Fernandez ML, Bruno RS, Ptolemy AS, Kellogg MD, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ. Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass. J Am Coll Nutr. 2013;32(2):122-35. PMID: 24015719
Other stereotypical "macho" behaviors can affect testosterone in women, according to a 2015 report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. For example, posing in a powerful way increases testosterone in both women and men. The 2015 report showed that having women role-play a position of power — acting like a boss — had the same effect.
There are a lot of test booster blends out there. A lot of them are junk. I have tried to cover the most effective herbs above. As always, I recommend doing your own research and experiment to see if you notice an effect. If you would like one easy herbal solution I recommend starting with Mike Mahlers Aggressive Strength product purely because I have solid anecdotal evidence of its effectiveness. But again, supplements should be seen purely as that - a supplement to a healthy diet, plenty of sleep, hard training with adequate rest.

Estrogen is important in men, but too high of a level has all sorts of negative consequences – ranging from heart attacks to prostate cancer (32 & 33). The balance between testosterone and estrogen (or estradiol) is critical for a man. If the ratio is out and estrogen starts to dominate you run into all sorts of issues – such as breast cell growth, prostate enlargement and of course lower testosterone.
Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance much less of an issue with testosterone replacement therapy.
In the hepatic 17-ketosteroid pathway of testosterone metabolism, testosterone is converted in the liver by 5α-reductase and 5β-reductase into 5α-DHT and the inactive 5β-DHT, respectively.[1][151] Then, 5α-DHT and 5β-DHT are converted by 3α-HSD into 3α-androstanediol and 3α-etiocholanediol, respectively.[1][151] Subsequently, 3α-androstanediol and 3α-etiocholanediol are converted by 17β-HSD into androsterone and etiocholanolone, which is followed by their conjugation and excretion.[1][151] 3β-Androstanediol and 3β-etiocholanediol can also be formed in this pathway when 5α-DHT and 5β-DHT are acted upon by 3β-HSD instead of 3α-HSD, respectively, and they can then be transformed into epiandrosterone and epietiocholanolone, respectively.[153][154] A small portion of approximately 3% of testosterone is reversibly converted in the liver into androstenedione by 17β-HSD.[152]
^ David KG, Dingemanse E, Freud JL (May 1935). "Über krystallinisches mannliches Hormon aus Hoden (Testosteron) wirksamer als aus harn oder aus Cholesterin bereitetes Androsteron" [On crystalline male hormone from testicles (testosterone) effective as from urine or from cholesterol]. Hoppe-Seyler's Z Physiol Chem (in German). 233 (5–6): 281–83. doi:10.1515/bchm2.1935.233.5-6.281.

Using steroids eventually trains your body to realize that it doesn’t have to produce as much testosterone to reach its equilibrium, so to reach the same highs you’ll need to take more steroids, and when you stop taking them, your body will need to readjust — you’ll be living with low testosterone for a while (and you’ll need to see a doctor if your body doesn’t readjust on its own). Forcing your body to stay above your natural testosterone, even if you’re naturally low, can create this kind of dependency which ultimately decreases the amount of testosterone your body will produce on its own.

An added testosterone benefit of my high fat and balanced protein and carb diet was that it probably helped me lose some body fat (I went from 18% to 12% body fat). Studies show that high fat diets actually contribute to increased body fat loss. And as we discussed earlier, as you lose body fat, your T production ramps up. Virtuous cycle for the win!
For people who are worried about low or high testosterone, a doctor may perform a blood test to measure the amount of the hormone in the patient's blood. When doctors find low-T, they may prescribe testosterone therapy, in which the patient takes an artificial version of the hormone. This is available in the following forms: a gel to be applied to the upper arms, shoulders or abdomen daily; a skin patch put on the body or scrotum twice a day; a solution applied to the armpit; injections every two or three weeks; a patch put on the gums twice a day; or implants that last four to six months.
Few examples: In this 2014 study, a bunch of researchers tested multiple different diets with added Lactobacillus Reuteri on male rodents. In every single case, the addition of L.Reuterii to the feed increased testosterone levels, increased luteinizing hormone levels, increased testicular size & weight, prevented age-related testicular shrinkage, improved semen parameters, and even increased markers of social domination.
“I'm 55 years old and hitting the ball further than I've ever hit, and I'm not getting tired going 18 holes! And when I play softball I'm hitting the ball further. I work for the DWP in LA and it's a very physically demanding job. Andro400 really helps because we work 16 hour days a lot. I was turning down a lot of overtime, but when I started taking Andro400, it got me through the day. I really notice a difference – even my wife did. It really works!”
“Before taking Andro400, my husband weighed 290 lbs. He's a diabetic and his blood pressure was through the roof. I purchased Andro based on the reviews, and he's lost 60 - 70 lbs! ​It's enhanced him health-wise in a lot of aspects too. He used to be depressed because of his weight. The fact that he was losing weight like crazy gave him a lot of relief. He's not depressed now, he's really happy. He's more loving. And it's so exciting for me as a wife to see him happier -- it made me happier​! ​ So I'm really grateful. Andro400 gave him a lot of ​energy ​ too because of the testosterone boost.​ The 3 main things everybody's noticing are: no more​ depression, a lot more energy and ​the huge weight loss. He went from size 42 to 38, so it's like, oh my God it's WORKING!! Trust me, we've tried a lot of other things that didn't work. And that's why I'm so excited because it's actually, literally changing our lives!” 

“Before taking Andro400, my husband weighed 290 lbs. He's a diabetic and his blood pressure was through the roof. I purchased Andro based on the reviews, and he's lost 60 - 70 lbs! ​It's enhanced him health-wise in a lot of aspects too. He used to be depressed because of his weight. The fact that he was losing weight like crazy gave him a lot of relief. He's not depressed now, he's really happy. He's more loving. And it's so exciting for me as a wife to see him happier -- it made me happier​! ​ So I'm really grateful. Andro400 gave him a lot of ​energy ​ too because of the testosterone boost.​ The 3 main things everybody's noticing are: no more​ depression, a lot more energy and ​the huge weight loss. He went from size 42 to 38, so it's like, oh my God it's WORKING!! Trust me, we've tried a lot of other things that didn't work. And that's why I'm so excited because it's actually, literally changing our lives!” 

Bottom line: testosterone boosters aren’t right for a lot of people. We dive deep into ingredient research below, but typically, testosterone boosters contain at least one (and often three or more) different ingredients that each impact your circulatory system — both the heart and blood. If you’re taking any kind of blood-thinner medication, or you have a history of heart disease, these supplements can get really dangerous, really quickly. The simple fact of the matter is that hormones are tricky things to mess with, and a doctor should be your first port of call to help you safely achieve your goals — whether they’re related to fitness, weight, or libido.

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We scoured the database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (part of the U.S. National Library of Science) for articles. Of the many ingredients marketed as boosting testosterone levels, we only found four backed by multiple articles based on human testing. For the best chance of boosting testosterone levels, a supplement needs to contain magnesium, fenugreek, and longjack — and some zinc wouldn’t go astray, either.

The brain is also affected by this sexual differentiation;[13] the enzyme aromatase converts testosterone into estradiol that is responsible for masculinization of the brain in male mice. In humans, masculinization of the fetal brain appears, by observation of gender preference in patients with congenital diseases of androgen formation or androgen receptor function, to be associated with functional androgen receptors.[95]

Attention, memory, and spatial ability are key cognitive functions affected by testosterone in humans. Preliminary evidence suggests that low testosterone levels may be a risk factor for cognitive decline and possibly for dementia of the Alzheimer's type,[100][101][102][103] a key argument in life extension medicine for the use of testosterone in anti-aging therapies. Much of the literature, however, suggests a curvilinear or even quadratic relationship between spatial performance and circulating testosterone,[104] where both hypo- and hypersecretion (deficient- and excessive-secretion) of circulating androgens have negative effects on cognition.

Keep more weapons in your arsenal: Occasionally use lifting methods like forced reps, negatives, and dropsets to further stress your body. Personal trainer and fitness journalist Michael Berg explains in "6 Ways to Crank Up Your Testosterone Levels" that going beyond muscular failure with these techniques has been shown to pump up T-levels in study subjects.[16]
Testosterone boosters are used by many athletes worldwide to achieve a significant muscle mass increase within a short period of time.[1] However; one cannot be completely confident in terms of the quality and efficacy of such products because of several reasons, such as the possibility of bad storage conditions and originating from an unreliable source. Over the years, some consumers of testosterone boosters have complained of kidney and liver abnormalities that could be linked to their use of boosters.[10] Cases of erroneous product administration have occurred in the past as athletes may not follow the instructions on the label fully, which can lead to many side effects.[11] In the present case, a man was admitted to a hospital because of a severe abdominal pain. The pain was later found to be caused by liver injury. The diagnosis confirmed that the levels of the key hepatic enzymes were markedly elevated. The medical complications observed were found to have occurred following the consumption of two courses of a commercial testosterone booster. According to researchers based in the US, about 13% of the annual cases of acute liver failure are attributable to idiosyncratic drug- and/or supplement-induced liver injury.[12] Marked increase in the levels of ALT, AST, and gamma-glutamyl transferase was observed after consuming the first course of the commercial testosterone booster, and they started to decline after the 2nd and 3rd course. This abruptly increases the levels of liver enzymes after the first course may be attributed to the interruption effect of commercial testosterone booster on liver function as a result of the effects of its ingredients.
Before the ready availability of non-injectible testosterone preparations, and because of their ease of administration by the oral route, 17-alkylated steroids were popular surrogate agents for testosterone. These substances, however, were capable of inducing several risk factors for coronary artery disease (Kopera 1993; Hall and Hall 2005) and as a consequence, particularly after the revelations of extensive 17-alkylated anabolic steroid abuse by athletes, testosterone, became unjustly incriminated. The evidence, however, tends to suggest just the opposite; testosterone may even be cardioprotective. Dunajska and colleagues have demonstrated that when compared to controls, men with coronary artery disease tend to have: lower total testosterone levels and free androgen indices, more abdominal fat, higher blood sugar and insulin levels (Dunajska et al 2004).
In general, the normal range in males is about 270 to 1070 ng/dL with an average level of 679 ng/dL. A normal male testosterone level peaks at about age 20, and then it slowly declines. Testosterone levels above or below the normal range are considered by many to be out of balance. Moreover, some researchers suggest that the healthiest men have testosterone levels between 400 - 600 ng/dL.
A number of research groups have tried to further define the relationship of testosterone and body composition by artificial alteration of testosterone levels in eugonadal populations. Induction of a hypogonadal state in healthy men (Mauras et al 1998) or men with prostate cancer (Smith et al 2001) using a gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) analogue was shown to produce increases in fat mass and decreased fat free mass. Another experimental approach in healthy men featured suppression of endogenous testosterone production with a GnRH analogue, followed by treatment with different doses of weekly intramuscular testosterone esters for 20 weeks. Initially the experiments involved men aged 18–35 years (Bhasin et al 2001) but subsequently the study was repeated with a similar protocol in men aged 60–75 years (Bhasin et al 2005). The different doses given were shown to produce a range of serum concentrations from subphysiological to supraphysiological (Bhasin et al 2001). A given testosterone dose produced higher serum concentrations of testosterone in the older age group (Bhasin et al 2005). Subphysiological dosing of testosterone produced a gain in fat mass and loss of fat free mass during the study. There were sequential decreases in fat mass and increases in fat free mass with each increase of testosterone dose. These changes in body composition were seen in physiological and supraphysiological treatment doses. The trend was similar in younger versus older men but the gain of fat mass at the lowest testosterone dose was less prominent in older patients (Bhasin et al 2001; Bhasin et al 2005). With regard to muscle function, the investigators showed dose dependent increases in leg strength and power with testosterone treatment in young and older men but there was no improvement in fatigability (Storer et al 2003; Bhasin et al 2005).
Important future developments will include selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). These drugs will be able to produce isolated effects of testosterone at androgen receptors. They are likely to become useful clinical drugs, but their initial worth may lie in facilitating research into the relative importance of testosterone’s action at the androgen receptor compared to at other sites or after conversion to other hormones. Testosterone will remain the treatment of choice for late onset hypogonadism for some time to come.
Why do we need magnesium? Magnesium is an essential nutrient in the body that can help decrease the risk of developing osteoporosis, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower the risk of hypertension. This article looks at other health benefits of magnesium, what happens if a person has a deficiency, supplements, and how to include it in the diet. Read now
There are no studies showing its effects on healthy males, but it has been shown to drastically improve testosterone in infertile males (ref 77). It's also packed full of minerals, so is a great superfood nevertheless. I use the Sunfoods brand. Make sure you buy from a quality brand, as there are a lot of poor shilajit products out there, also some have been shown to be high in heavy metals. 
Testosterone is included in the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines, which are the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[107] It is available as a generic medication.[10] The price depends on the form of testosterone used.[108] It can be administered as a cream or transdermal patch that is applied to the skin, by injection into a muscle, as a tablet that is placed in the cheek, or by ingestion.[10]
Sharma, R., Oni, O. A., Gupta, K., Chen, G., Sharma, M., Dawn, B., … & Barua, R. S. (2015, August 6). Normalization of testosterone level is associated with reduced incidence of myocardial infarction. European Heart Journal, 36(40), 2706-2715. Retrieved from