At the end of the summer (August) I weighed myself again and found out I had lost 10 pounds since January. I didn’t get down on myself when it felt like I had working so hard for little progress, but instead decided I was going to kick it hardcore into gear. It was at this point that my healthy habits were formed and I could continue in the direction of a healthy lifestyle. I could work harder in the hopes of seeing results. I realized at this point going forward it would be more of a mental battle than physical battle. The habits were formed, but I needed to continue believing in myself, staying encouraged, and thinking positive. I tried my best.
“Burpees are such a great way to activate multiple muscles, get the heart rate up and burn mega calories. In one single burpee, you work your legs, arms and abs and you also elevate the heart rate to increase cardiopulmonary strength. If you’re looking to lose weight, incorporating them into your workout routine is a must.”—Kit Rich, celebrity trainer and co-owner of SHIFT by Dana Perri
On my weight loss and fitness blog I don’t have any links of my own to anything, there are too many links out there promising you things that are just not true and don’t belong in a realistic world. I started my blog as my lady has had a problem all of her life, so I though she can’t be the only one so I started to blog about it. I do have ad-sense on my site, I believe a bit of income for our hard work is OK.
The trick here is not only to avoid all obvious sources of carbohydrate (sweets, bread, spaghetti, rice, potatoes), but also to be careful with your protein intake. If you eat large amounts of meat, eggs and the like, the excess protein will be converted into glucose in your body. Large amounts of protein can also raise your insulin levels somewhat. This compromises optimal ketosis.
When you're at your heaviest, it can be intimidating to step into a gym and begin running or lifting among the spandex-clad. Working out in your own space is also simply easier to schedule—you can lift weights while the baby naps or first thing in the morning without dragging yourself out the door. "I bought an exercise bike so I can work out whenever I want," says Sarah DeArmond, who lost 100 pounds.
About: Kristina is a plus-size model with a mission: help women learn to love their bodies while working to exercise, eat right and live healthfully. But most importantly, Kristina’s blog is about exploring body confidence and “healthy curves.” Her blog is the perfect balance of encouraging healthy living and loving yourself at the same time. Plus, Kristina’s great about taking it outside herself. Every month, she features the “Curvy Girl of the Month” where she profiles other successful women.
Here's something else most people probably don't know: Fidgeting is good for you. It's considered a nonexercise physical activity, and it's an important way to burn energy. You get more health benefits if, in addition to exercising, you are a more fidgety, more active person the rest of the day. This means gesturing while you're talking, tapping your foot, just moving around.
Shelly of the World According to Eggface is remarkable for her 158-lb weight loss, which took her from morbidly obese to healthy and happy. But she's even more inspirational for being so open about something a lot of weight-loss bloggers tiptoe around: her gastric bypass surgery. Check out her A Day in My Pouch post to see what it's like eating after this type of weight-loss surgery.
Several months in, I finally found the energy to start moving. I call it moving because it was hardly intense exercise. Addison was an extremely difficult baby from 0-15 months and I got very little sleep for as long as I can remember. She literally cried all night and all day. It was all I could do to get out the door and make myself move. But I did. I walked the 1.2 mile super hilly loop around our neighborhood pushing Addie in a stroller at least 4 days a week. I eventually graduated to two and then three continuous loops around the neighborhood but that was about the extent of my workout routine. Although it was super difficult at times, I stuck to this routine of eating good and walking the hood (hehe that rhymes) and in approximately eight months I had lost close to 80lbs.
Hi, I am in a female my early 20’s and put on 14 pounds from june last year. I am on a diet similar to this its called the Candida diet, (no bread, no pasta, no potatoes, no milk product, no sugar) I have been on it almost a week I don’t see much of a difference in my weight. My calorie intake is different every day sometimes as low as 700 calories a day (hard to find high calorie foods that are acceptable on the diet, beans are not allowed) I have been eating avocados and nuts to compensate. I do minimal exercise usually a 40 minute walk a day. When you said your metabolism will slow when given less calories, it that the reason I’m not loosing weight?
In short: it’s complicated! Clearly, it’s not as simple as “estrogen makes you fat” or “estrogen prevents weight loss.” And like most things in life, there’s a happy medium. There’s a healthy range of estrogen that brings nothing but benefits, but too little or too much estrogen can cause problems. Think Goldilocks: it’s not about demonizing estrogen (or anything else); it’s about finding the balance.
I played tennis from my freshman through junior year of high school and, again, really enjoyed the sport, but abhorred the running.  Our coach was a middle-aged guy who could run circles around me.  The entire team would have finished their laps around the field, while I was still stumbling along next to the (also middle-aged) assistant coach, who I’m quite sure they sent in as an attempt to get me to run faster.
About Blog Red Mountain Weight Loss is the leader in Medical Weight Loss, providing expert care under the direction of our Bariatric Physicians. Recently revealed the newest revolution in the weight loss by red mountain weight loss, healthy lifestyle than ever before with medical weight loss in phoenix Health experts offer their service and daytime talk show.
Lisa began Workout Mommy in 2007. Back then, she was a busy mom of two who found out that continuing her pre-motherhood commitment to health and fitness wasn’t as easy as she thought it would be. Now a single mother of four, she admits it’s even hard to find the time to commit to fitness. She writes her blog to inspire others to make that time, and holds herself accountable for finding it as well. Visit the blog.
About: Andie’s well-known for her New York Times bestselling memoir “It Was Me All Along” where she chronicles how she lost 135 pounds 10 years ago. But it’s her blog that drew us to her for this list, especially considering that she’s managed all this time to KEEP that weight off. Andie also wrote a cookbook, “Eating in the Middle,” featuring (mostly) healthy recipes. Plus, Andie’s blog is chock full of healthy recipes too (and the occasional indulgence), lessons she learned while losing weight and how she transformed her relationship with food and her body.
“Every morning I drink a cup of warm water with half a lemon squeezed into it, a teaspoon of apple cider vinegar, and a dash of cayenne pepper,” says Michelle Keough. This helps her start her day off on a healthy note while getting her hydrated after a long night. This trick, combined with eating meals built around protein and veggies, helped her lose 20 pounds and keep it off.

Hi, I am in a female my early 20’s and put on 14 pounds from june last year. I am on a diet similar to this its called the Candida diet, (no bread, no pasta, no potatoes, no milk product, no sugar) I have been on it almost a week I don’t see much of a difference in my weight. My calorie intake is different every day sometimes as low as 700 calories a day (hard to find high calorie foods that are acceptable on the diet, beans are not allowed) I have been eating avocados and nuts to compensate. I do minimal exercise usually a 40 minute walk a day. When you said your metabolism will slow when given less calories, it that the reason I’m not loosing weight?
So finally, let’s discuss if there really is a ‘metabolic advantage’ to nutritional ketosis, meaning that the body burns more energy per day at any set level of physical activity compared to when a non-ketogenic diet is consumed.  The simple answer is that we still don’t know the answer for sure.  But we do know enough to get a rough idea how much of a metabolic inefficiency might be associated with nutritional ketosis.
Reading Stefani’s take on intermittent fasting was the slap in the face I needed to actually start listening to what my body was telling me. Her WLU Program has utterly and completely changed my relationship to my body and how  I treat myself. I owe Stefani an unbelievable debt of gratitude for showing me the way not just to self love but also to being able to fit into my favorite leggings. 
Jen Mellor is a full-time mom and blogger for the inspiring weight loss blog, Just Average Jen. Jen has lost over 140 pounds through healthy eating and shares with us her tips for weight loss, healthy, vegetarian-friendly recipes, and the trials and tribulations of her life and journey to keeping the weight off, all while staying happy and healthy. Her weight loss journey is not only inspiring but has shown us that she is, in fact, anything but average!

Well done Jennifer. Inspirational. I also know from personal experience how hard it is to lose weight. It takes discipline to push through no matter what you’re feeling. For me it was getting up at 5:00 a.m. every morning (Mon – Fri) to exercise but when I saw some photos of me while my wife and I were on holiday, that was all the motivation I needed to become laser focused to change. I followed a lifestyle challenge which pretty much is what you describe above. It does seem counter intuitive to eat more doesn’t it. Of course it’s what you eat more of that you need to watch 🙂
For even more impressive effects on body composition: aim for exercise forms which elicit a positive hormonal response. This means lifting really heavy things (strength training), or interval training. Such exercise increases levels of the sex hormone testosterone (primarily in men) as well as growth hormone. Not only do greater levels of these hormones increase your muscle mass, but they also decrease your visceral fat (belly fat) in the long term.
Thank you. It’s easy to click through your blog looking at your gorgeous home, your perfect children and your beautiful skinny self. This is a wonderful reminder that we are all human! I have also lost 100 pounds and still have a way to go…. it was refreshing to be reminded not to take for granted that you know what struggles someone else has faced.
Want to lose that belly fat? In your dreams! Seriously, though: a good night’s sleep is one of the best ways to get rid of that extra fat around your waist for good. Among the 60,000 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study, those who snoozed for fewer than five hours a night were at the greatest risk of becoming obese and gaining 30 or more pounds over the course of the 16-year study period when compared to those who slept for seven or more hours.
There’s no way to sugarcoat this: Your TV is making you fat. It prevents you from being active, gives you the munchies, and makes you distracted while you’re eating. A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that people who ate in front of the TV consumed 10 percent more than they normally would. Eating while distracted disrupts your satiety signals, so shutting off all your electronics while munching will help you stick to your portions, and feel full.
About: Georgina is a natural in the kitchen. She loves experimenting with new recipes, often figuring out ways to make them healthier, as well as crafting and just generally living a happy life. When she started her blog four years ago, it was for a long time only read by her mother. Now, it’s a huge part of Georgina’s life and features all sorts of yummy recipes, tips for finding happiness and wellness, beauty and crafts. Georgina’s also a very visual person, so you’ll find no shortage of photos to tell the story in an even more vibrant way.
“That first day was so tough, I almost caved and reached for the vending machine at work but I remembered a quote I had on my Facebook page that said ‘The only thing standing between you and your goal is the bullshit story you keep telling yourself as to why you can't achieve it’ and that was enough to make me turn away from the machine,” she says.

Tina Haupert is a Boston-based Lifestyle Influencer and the creative mind behind Carrots ‘N’ Cake, a healthy living blog that serves to help everyday people achieve more balance through fitness, nutrition, and general best practices to improve one’s holistic personal wellness. Tina’s weight loss journey began in 2004 when she decided to get serious about her health and her body image. Two years and 23 pounds later, she reached her weight loss goal all while developing healthy lifestyle habits that she’s been able to maintain to this day.

Do you even lift, bro? If you’re serious about getting rid of that belly fat fast, resistance training might just be the key. A study from the Harvard School of Public Health found that adding weight training to adult male test subjects’ workouts significantly reduced their risk of abdominal obesity over a multi-year study period, although doing the same amount of cardio had no such effect. Research from the University of Maryland even found that just 16 weeks of weight training boosted study participants’ metabolic rates by a whopping 7.7 percent, making it easier to ditch those extra inches around your middle.
I rarely have to snack at all. My breakfast is quite large and will always tied me over until lunch. I then try to eat my lunch very slowly (over an hour or so) throughout the day while working, etc. so that it will last to supper. The days I do a resistance workout, I’ll have a high protein smoothie after (which is usually in the afternoon) so that keeps me until supper.
It's not just what you eat that can make you pack on pounds—it's also how much. Before dropping 102 pounds, DeGennaro did not have a grip on proper serving sizes. "Sitting down to dinner with my husband and three kids, I'd scarf down mounds of pasta and endless rolls," she says. "Adjusting to smaller portions was tricky at first; I'd round out meals with extra veggies to keep from getting hungry."
About: Gina has the kind of success story that really touches a nerve. She started out at 298 pounds and went on to lose 168 of those pounds in 25 months. As someone who always struggled with her weight and achieved such a huge thing, she has an especially good grasp on how to help other people who have 100 or more pounds to lose achieve their goals. Her blog is a place she uses to motivate, inspire, energize and connect with others. And that’s exactly what it is.
If you want to lose weight, you’d better avoid special “low-carb” products that are full of carbs. This should be obvious, but creative marketers are doing all they can to fool you (and get your money). They will tell you that you can eat cookies, pasta, ice cream, bread and plenty of chocolate on a low-carb diet, as long as you buy their brand. They’re full of carbohydrates. Don’t be fooled.

The 17 diet is not a bad diet. Phases 1 and 2 are not according to standards but phase 3 is a rather balanced phase. We have selected this diet to be part of our best weight loss programs for women because many women want fast results in a short period of time and phases 1 and 2 can give you the results you want in 34 days. The tricky part is to keep the weight off when you are entering phases 3 and 4 and this is where you need discipline.
People who get enough sleep tend to weigh less than those who don't. Additionally, researchers found that well-rested dieters lost more fat than those who were sleep deprived, who lost more muscle. "Whenever I don't sleep enough, I'm ravenous the next day," says Weil. To keep her hunger in check and help her maintain her slim figure, she tries to get at least 8 hours of sleep every night.
It’s impossible to target belly fat specifically when you diet. But losing weight overall will help shrink your waistline; more importantly, it will help reduce the dangerous layer of visceral fat, a type of fat within the abdominal cavity that you can’t see but that heightens health risks, says Kerry Stewart, Ed.D., director of Clinical and Research Physiology at Johns Hopkins.
Americans are getting less sleep than ever these days and it’s taking a toll on our health—most visibly on our waistlines. Losing just 30 minutes of sleep per night can make you gain weight, according to a study done by the Endocrine Society. Worse, that weight is more likely to go straight to your tummy. Instead, the researchers found, the best sleep cycle is one that follows your natural circadian rhythms, which means sleeping and waking around the same time as the sun. Here are the 7 ways to banish belly bloat in your sleep.
I am fasting for Ramadan. Can I do this diet? Yes, but you will have to spread your meals out. Drink cold water at 4 a.m. Wait 15 to 20 minutes and eat a big meal with the foods on that day's menu. Then at 7 p.m. when you can break your fast, drink another glass of cold water and wait 15 to 20 minutes. Eat another meal. Repeat through the evening, eating small meals until bedtime.
About: The truth is we all love a good success story — they show us what other people, real people that went through the same things we did, were able to achieve. They also give us ideas on how we can kickstart our own weight loss journey and succeed. The Weigh We Were is a one-stop shop for all those stories, real stories from other people who lost weight, plus how they did it. It’s just the place to get ideas from similar people to see what might work and what won’t.

"If your diet consists of lots of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened drinks like fizzy pop and flavoured waters, or sugary foods like chocolate and cakes, it will make losing weight harder. While whole fruits and vegetables are undoubtedly good for you, they can also sometimes cause weight gain if you eat too much, as they have high levels of natural sugars in them. Low-fat food options might have high amounts of added sugar in there too, so make sure to check the food label.


About: It’s difficult enough trying to get yourself on track to living healthy, but add in a family, and it can seem like the odds of success are astronomical. Enter Katie. As the mother of six, she has a lot of experience and a laundry list of tips and tricks busy moms and families can work together to achieve wellness. She sticks to real food, natural remedies and natural living in an effort to combat all the chemicals and pollution that could potentially hurt your family — and she does a darn good job of it.
"Protein is great for fat loss. It helps build and preserve lean muscle tissue and can increase the amount of calories you burn. It’s also a great source of energy that helps you feel fuller for longer, so you’re less tempted to snack. Good sources include chicken breast, tuna, eggs, milk and chickpeas. And if you’re finding it difficult to avoid snacks that are high in carbohydrates, try substituting them for protein shakes or bars. Remember also to opt for the lean sources of protein because some sources can be high in saturated fat."
The calorie restriction diet myth suggests you will win the fight against flab. While losing weight does come down to how many calories you consume, it’s the types of foods you eat that will determine how you feel as you lose weight and the kind of weight you will lose. If you have a poorquality diet — counting calories but eating junk food — chances are you’ll lose muscle rather than fat, and thus, suffer from slow metabolism.

I read about your weight loss and plan and its giving me hope to change. I recently am undergoing a lot of change internally and externally (adjusting to living alone , and a demanding new job) so I want a new me by the end of this month too – physically. I will try this new way of eating for 2 weeks, and keep a log of my progress and what I am eating along with the strength training. Question- I didnt see much in the way of cardio, did you do any in the first 2 weeks? thanks. Maria
We’re almost up to speed, but still rewind a little bit back to the early years of college. In the fall of 2012 I started school at Truman State University in good old Kirksville, Missouri. If you’re in college or have been to college, you know that it’s the time to form independence and truly make decisions, on your own, for how you wish to live your life. For a lot of people this means starting over, turning over a new leaf, making new habits, developing a new lifestyle, etc. Honestly college is crazy and weird and I don’t want to ramble on it too much because this post is focused more on the fitness/nutrition journey I’ve experienced (though I now realize its all connected.)
How would you like to take all the great weight-loss results you’ve just read about—and double them? That’s what happens when you supplement your diet with a combination of vitamin D and calcium, according to a Nutrition Journal study. Just four weeks into the 12-week experiment, subjects who had taken these two nutrients—found in abundance in some yogurts—lost two times more fat than the other group! To get similar results at home, start your day with one of these best yogurts for weight loss.
About: Kristina is a plus-size model with a mission: help women learn to love their bodies while working to exercise, eat right and live healthfully. But most importantly, Kristina’s blog is about exploring body confidence and “healthy curves.” Her blog is the perfect balance of encouraging healthy living and loving yourself at the same time. Plus, Kristina’s great about taking it outside herself. Every month, she features the “Curvy Girl of the Month” where she profiles other successful women.
So at age 20 my weight started to climb, but I didn’t notice or care because I was having fun.  At about age 24, I still didn’t workout at all and just partied and enjoyed my time with my friends.  I had an asthma attack, and went to the Doctors and that is when he told me, if I keep going this route I would die! (Thanks Dr. Becker) Pretty abrupt, but it’s true.  I was hitting near 200lbs and heading down the road of disaster.  I don’t think I ever made it to 200lbs, but I came pretty close.  (That’s me with the brown hair and bag in the picture, gross huh?)
About: Bonnie’s been sharing her life — and family of 7 — with readers for years. But the reason she found her way onto our list is because of what she started Jan. 2 — a full-on commitment to cut out the junk food, soda and other unhealthy habits and lose weight. More than three months later, and she’s more than succeeded. Her daily struggle is the kind of thing anyone who’s stopped and started and stopped and then started again can attest to. But what really makes it special is that this time, she not stopping.
Make sure that everything you're eating is whole — as in nothing processed or packaged. Since salt is a preservative, these are the foods that are highest in sodium — something to keep in mind when planning your meals. Plan on making sure that all items you choose are fresh. That means filling up on fresh fruits and veggies, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and lean protein.
When Johns Hopkins researchers compared the effects on the heart of losing weight through a low-carbohydrate diet versus a low-fat diet for six months—each containing the same amount of calories—those on a low-carb diet lost an average of 10 pounds more than those on a low-fat diet—28.9 pounds versus 18.7 pounds. An extra benefit of the low-carb diet is that it produced a higher quality of weight loss, Stewart says. With weight loss, fat is reduced, but there is also often a loss of lean tissue (muscle), which is not desirable. On both diets, there was a loss of about 2 to 3 pounds of good lean tissue along with the fat, which means that the fat loss percentage was much higher on the low-carb diet.
Harder et al. reported that rapid WL could significantly decrease weight, triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, fasting blood glucose (FBS), hemoglobin A1c, and fasting serum insulin (FINS) (16). Also, Wahlroos et al. reported that a significant decrease in waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous abdominal fat volume, and insulin resistance occurred after rapid WL (17).
That’s where these tips come in. We talked with eight women over 40—all of whom have lost 40 or more pounds!—about the tools and methods that helped them make lasting healthy changes. And we've got to admit that they’re pretty darn genius! Try incorporating a few into your weight loss plan, and you just might find yourself on the fast track to getting into those skinny jeans. (Looking for even more slim-down secrets? Don’t miss these 6 things you must do to lose weight over 40.)
If you're mostly sedentary (and let's face it—with 9-to-5 desk jobs being the norm, it's hard to avoid), you'll start to see noticeable results with just a slight increase in your activity level. Break up the hours in front of the computer by using your lunch break to move around. "I started walking for 45 minutes during my lunch break," says Melissa Leon, who ultimately dropped 53 pounds. "The area was super hilly, but feeling the burn in my butt and quads as I powered up those hills let me know I was making progress."

I try my very hardest not to compare myself to others. Everyone is going to have a different journey. It’s hard when I can look at people that seem like they can eat whatever they want and not have to work hard to look great. I get that. But my journey is about the progress I an making and discovering my best self. I found a community to celebrate accomplishments together, which was a game changer. It is helpful, fun, and encouraging having buddies to journey with.
Nutritional ketosis induced by carbohydrate restriction is often associated with major weight loss, which raises some important questions. Do ketones cause weight loss? Do ketones promote a metabolic condition whereby fat melts away to a greater extent than a non-ketogenic diet of equal energy content?  Alternatively, can a person maintain or even gain weight while in nutritional ketosis?  To explore the answers to these questions, we need to venture into the complex inter-relationships between keto-adaptation, appetite, energy balance and weight loss.
Ultimately, Paleo is a good diet for hormonal imbalance without any fancy protocols or special tweaks. Paleo is naturally high in protein and fiber, and low to moderate in carbohydrates: just what the evidence suggests is beneficial. If hormonal issues are still stalling weight loss even after you’ve been on Paleo for a while, it’s a sign that something more serious is going wrong – and probably time to go see a doctor about it.
Several months in, I finally found the energy to start moving. I call it moving because it was hardly intense exercise. Addison was an extremely difficult baby from 0-15 months and I got very little sleep for as long as I can remember. She literally cried all night and all day. It was all I could do to get out the door and make myself move. But I did. I walked the 1.2 mile super hilly loop around our neighborhood pushing Addie in a stroller at least 4 days a week. I eventually graduated to two and then three continuous loops around the neighborhood but that was about the extent of my workout routine. Although it was super difficult at times, I stuck to this routine of eating good and walking the hood (hehe that rhymes) and in approximately eight months I had lost close to 80lbs.
These are fantastic tips, and now that I’m in my thirties, and have just recently started exercising again, I am finding it’s harder to lose weight than I thought. I think the whole “not eating enough” aspect is my problem! I am definitely going to give it a try! Good for you for taking the steps to make healthy changes in your life, and cheers to continued success!

Do the Mediterranean diet. Any diet will work at first if you consume fewer calories than you burn. This does not mean that the diet is necessarily sustainable or healthy, but you will lose weight in the short term. A plan like the Mediterranean diet may be able to help you sustain weight loss. It is based on the traditional ingredients and cooking styles of people living near the Mediterranean sea. Research has shown that people adhering to this diet have reduced risk of heart disease - plus it helps you shed pounds and look lean and trim.[15] Focus on eating the following foods (and eliminate bread, dairy, and processed foods):
Dairy products such as cream and cheeses. They work well in cooking as they satisfy. The problem is if you’re munching a lot of cheese in front of the TV in the evening… without being hungry. Be careful with that. Or lots of cream with dessert, when you’re actually already full and just keep eating because it tastes good. Or another common culprit: loads of heavy cream in the coffee, many times per day.
[…] Jennifer Drummond’s weight loss journey began in the summer of 2009 when she walked every day after dinner — no exceptions. She lost ten pounds in one month. “That was the push I needed,” she said. But she didn’t stop there. Drummond started controlling her portions and later she started counting calories. In 2010 she began working out to TV exercise channels. Gradually she continued to do more. […]
Wow, Penny. You sure have had more than your fair share of struggles! I am so impressed at how you have continued to persevere and do whatever you could to succeed, despite all of the setbacks. YOU are the inspiring one! You found a way to exercise that didn’t cause you pain, you are making the healthiest choices you can in your circumstances. I am so glad you shared your story with me!
Spanx are maybe no one’s idea of a good time, but sometimes you just need a little extra (firm) help to flatten your tummy to wear your favorite dress or for a special evening out. And there’s nothing wrong with turning to technology to help you get there. Body shaping undergarments have come a long way in the past few years with more breathable fabrics and styles for both men and women.
Thanks Jen! When you get down to the last 10 – 15lbs., it’s so much harder to get it off. Sometimes I think when you can’t lose weight and your doing all the right things,it maybe because it’s your bodies way of tell you it’s at it’s happy weight. I just keep plugging away and see what happens. As a long as your exercising and eating right that all that counts because your doing something good for your body!
Take a walk through the supermarket, and you’ll be assaulted with aisle after aisle of low-fat and no-fat foods, “healthy” chips and cookies and juices and sodas galore. You likely already know that if you want to lose weight, cutting out processed foods and sweets is the first and most obvious step. But those healthy-sounding options can be just as bad, too.
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