Scrolling through your social media one last time may be most people’s pre-bed ritual, but it can seriously mess with your sleep cycle. The light from your screen can suppress melatonin, the hormone that controls sleep. And getting plenty of shut-eye is important for your waistline; a study published in the journal Sleep found that people who didn’t get the recommended 7-8 hours of sleep a night were more at risk for weight gain. Try to put your phone away 20 minutes before your bedtime to avoid the light distraction.
“Whether you have ten pounds to lose or 100, the first thing you should do is create an environment for success.” That requires removing all temptation from your kitchen and reorganizing your pantry for weight loss. “Collect all of the processed, sugary and fatty foods from your house, and bring them to a local food bank for donation. Then restock your kitchen with healthy groceries—real, natural, whole foods—like fresh fruits and vegetables, almonds and lean proteins like turkey, chicken, fish and eggs.” — Chris Powell, the trainer who has helped hundreds of overweight people lose up to half their body weight on ABC’s reality series  Extreme Weight Loss
Picking out your domain name is fun but can get a little stressful. Take some time to think about your domain name because once it is purchased and you start writing on your blog it will be difficult to change. People will start to know you as your blog name so you don’t want to switch it up and confuse everyone. On the flip side don’t spend a ton of time thinking of the perfect name because really it comes down to the information you share.
Hi! Great article. I know what you mean about how seeing fast results can get you so excited that it motivates you to do more – eat better, become more active, etc. I lost 5 pounds on a program and I didn’t exercise at all but I got so much energy and desire to have more results that it is changing the way I think and live. I look up great healthy recipes, exercise tips all kinds of healthy minded things. Also I totally agree about the cheat days. No matter what program we are on we need to feel ok when we have a cheat day. If we punish ourselves because we enjoyed a little extra one day then we end up in worse shape. (well that was my experience) Now I know it’s ok if I have a little extra every so often because I know the next day I’m excited to get back to following my plan.
Keeping a toothbrush handy can do more than polish up that smile (and counter the effects of all that belly-slimming garlic); brushing your teeth throughout the day can also help you ditch that belly fat fast. A study conducted a sample of over 14,000 participants found that brushing after every meal was linked to lower weight. That minty toothpaste flavor not only clashes with virtually every food, brushing may also trigger a Pavlovian response that tells your brain the kitchen’s closed.

Getting up early for an a.m. workout is always tough, especially as you slog through getting dressed before the sun rises. Leaving your sneakers out within view of your bed will make it easier to get out of bed, and remind you of why you’re waking up early in the first place. Plus, setting out your entire workout ensemble will cut down on getting ready time, so you can get dressed and leave the house before you have time to change your mind.


The glycemic and lipid profiles are shown in Table 3. Triglyceride and VLDL levels and insulin indices (FINS, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-S) showed a significant decrease in both groups. In addition, QUICKI increased significantly in both groups, yet no significant differences were shown between the 2 groups. Although the level of FBS and FINS changed significantly, especially in the rapid WL group, the drop in HOMA-B was not statistically significant. A significant reduction in LDL, FBS, and TC was seen in the rapid WL group. In addition, a significant reduction in HOMA-IR, HOMA-S, FBS, and LDL was seen in rapid WL group compared to the slow WL group.
“I learned how to cook from scratch and experiment with flavors. The biggest change my husband Mark and I made was planning our meals for the week on Sundays. We also rely on food optimizing—using vegetables to bulk up our meals but still keep them low-calorie. It helped me lose 52 pounds and 8 dress sizes, while Mark lost 110 pounds.” —Amanda Gibbon, 46
Im 14 years old, only 5 foot, and put on 7 pound, yet i still stayed the same height. Therefore, i got fatter, cause i didnt grow at all. I read most. Of your helpful advice/tips, and i got it & i think it’ll be a tad bit difficult, but i culd be committed if i really set my mind to it. I just need your help/motivation. I need you to REALLY help me. Give me like a daily routine. Sorry if thats too much to ask. ;p but yeah, PLEASE TEXT ME ASAP
About: Rachael’s got a unique combination of expertise. She’s an avid fitness lover, a health fanatic and a registered nurse. She also has to combat strange work hours to keep up her active lifestyle and exercise regimen, which is exactly why we picked her. When you’re among those who are trying to lose weight but have a hectic schedule, Rachael’s the blogger to turn to for advice. She knows how to fight obstacles like sleep deprivation, food cravings, boredom hunger and (of course) being “too busy” to get healthy.
It’s not just the calories in your cocktail that are causing you to gain weight, when you drink and get a little buzz on you are less likely to stick to the plan, you feel happy and euphoric and think “hey, what the heck one Oreo won’t hurt” and the next thing you know you have eaten the entire box. And how about when you have one too many drinks and are like “man, I’m trashed I need to get some bread in my tummy so I’m not hung over tomorrow” yep, drinking alcohol will lead to bad choices and not just in the “after school special” kind of way.
Testing your limits brings about than just bragging rights. Lifting a heavier weight for fewer reps burns nearly twice as many calories during the two hours after your workout than lifting a lighter weight for more reps, according to research published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. Feel smug in the knowledge you’re still torching calories in that 10am meeting.
What are you doing this weekend? I hope you’re signing up for MEND our new virtual 6 week workshop with the wonderful @rosiemolinary We launched a BONUS #bodykindness #podcast today and we have a coupon code for listeners. Enter SpiralUp at registration and you’ll save $130— all 6 weeks for $299 included our live session and Facebook group. Head on over to the podcast for Rosie and Rebecca insight. Then sign up for MEND with us... the only thing broken is how you see yourself. Starts 3/14
Lets be honest, there were mornings that I just didn’t have it in me to make this. For those mornings I would fall back to just 2-3 hardboiled eggs, or a single hardboiled egg and a protein shake made with water + whey protein isolate. Since I work from home, I can typically take the time to make a big breakfast, but probably 1/6 days I would have to fall back to the quick breakfast.

As you exercise, calories are burned and your body fat percentage decreases. So, exercising not only helps you lose belly fat, it also sheds fat from other areas. Running and walking are two of the best fat-burning exercises. Plus, the only equipment you need is a good pair of shoes. Between the two, running burns more calories, but walking really isn’t too far behind.
This is my first time to your blog, I found it when googling “Instant Pot Weight loss”. Reading your story, it was like reading my own biography, seriously its scary lol. I am so glad you have found a healthy balance. I struggle working as a nurse with crazy shift hours, a hubby working crazy shift hours and a toddler (who eats healthier than I do thanks to gerber organic food pouches – meanwhile i’m polishing off the bag of krispy kreme kruellers haha), – I HATE cooking/meal planning. My struggle is real with needing stupid easy but healthy recipes. Your story is inspiring because I feel like we could be soul sisters haha and I have hope that i can learn to cook and eat better not only for myself but for my hubby and baby.
I am a 21 year old girl. I am 4’11 & weigh 149.91 lbs/ 68 kg. My BMI is 30.2 that means i am “OBESE”. I need to decrease my weight to at least 55 kg. I have been going to gym for 2 months now and workout 3-4 days every week for 2.5-3hrs. I do the treadmill, elliptical trainer & stationary bike. I have reduced my calorie intake by 800-1000 per day. I have completely avoided junk food,soft drinks and dairy stuffs. But i have a problem of ocassional over eating due to stress and emotional breakdowns. I have been 72kg when i started gym and i reduced to 68kg. But now i have been stuck on 68kg. I don’t know what to do anymore. It’s like i have given up. 🙁
Electrolytes play a major role in keeping us alive since they provide the electrical current that allows our muscles, particularly the heart, to contract at the right speed. When there is a sudden decrease of food intake, there is also a sudden decrease in the electrolytes that our bodies are used to getting, particularly potassium and magnesium. If the body can’t handle the deficit, this can lead to impaired cardiovascular function and irregularities such as heart arrhythmias.
Okay now let’s talk about the fun stuff – how do I actually make money blogging? Before I dive into the 4 ways I make an income from my blog I just want to clarify a couple things. 99.9% of the money I make comes from the healthy lifestyle/weight loss content and products I have on Organize Yourself Skinny. Besides this “how to blog” post, and the others linked above, all my content centers around the topics I focus on with Organize Yourself Skinny. By the way Organize Yourself Skinny has over 1300 blog posts!
Although I am not tiny or super duper in shape, I feel that I am finally at a comfortable and healthy weight that I can maintain while being busy and always on the go. My routine over the last year has been to try and eat fairly healthy during the week and then cheat a little on the weekends. If I splurge at one meal, I try and drink a healthy shake or a plate of veggies at the next to “make up for” the last meal. As I said before this is NOT health advice, just how I maintain my weight without counting every calorie. I am  not one of those people with a crazy metabolism who can eat whatever they want so I have to be conscious about it all the time. Boo to any of you who are that way. I am forever jealous. One thing that has really helped me to start losing some again recently has been an alkaline diet. I honestly FEEL so much better too!
About: Rachel, Valeri and Dori are three lifelong, childhood friends who share a very strong common bond: They all were fat, and they’re all now fit. But they’re also very unique — each has her own approach to weight loss and fitness, approaches that come together for one heck of a diverse blog. No matter what your level of fitness is or how much weight you need to lose, you’ll find a style from one of these ladies that resonates. Inspirational, logical and practical, Rachel, Valeri and Dori truly put together a masterpiece.
Fitness and nutrition were my two focus areas, and I completed some sort of action for them each day. Fitness each day looked different, but it was usually an hour of busting my butt. If you’re a list person, this is a tangible action that can be “checked off your list.” In my opinion, nutrition is not as concrete. Again, if you’re a list person, it’s a little difficult because either you write things like “eat balanced, nutritious breakfast” or “don’t eat sweets” or whatever. It also lasts all day long instead of one hour. This category leaves a lot of room for improvement.
Some people feel better supplementing the already active T3 (sometimes prepared from pig thyroid glands), as it can give a stronger effect than the T4 hormone, but its effect is often harder to control. Swedish healthcare rarely prescribes or offers such T3 treatment, as it often lacks advantages and may pose a risk when doses are high for an extended period of time.
Tamsyn Smith is a triathlete, running coach, fitness instructor, and author of the weight loss journey blog, Fat Girl To Ironman. Tamsyn is currently 60% of the way to reaching her 5-year personal challenge of, you guessed it, running in an Ironman distance triathlon! She began her fitness journey as an overweight couch potato and has since lost over 35 pounds and maintains a healthy and active lifestyle. Tamsyn documents her training on her blog and continues to train for her ultimate goal, Ironman success!
Articles and information on this website may only be copied, reprinted, or redistributed with written permission (but please ask, we like to give written permission!) The purpose of this Blog is to encourage the free exchange of ideas. The entire contents of this website is based upon the opinions of Dave Asprey, unless otherwise noted. Individual articles are based upon the opinions of the respective authors, who may retain copyright as marked. The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. It is intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the personal research and experience of Dave Asprey and the community. We will attempt to keep all objectionable messages off this site; however, it is impossible to review all messages immediately. All messages expressed on The Bulletproof Forum or the Blog, including comments posted to Blog entries, represent the views of the author exclusively and we are not responsible for the content of any message.

Alexis Eggleton is the creator of one of our most inspirational blogs, Trading Cardio for Cosmos, where she shares positive and inspirational messages, lessons in emotional wellness, healthy recipes and also features weight loss success stories, including her own! She has lost more than 100 pounds with Weight Watchers and exercise, all without losing her sunny disposition! Alexis’ weight loss journey reminds us that you can be healthy without having to sacrifice your favorite foods, and you can do it all with a smile!
Adam thank you for the feedback. I will certainly switch to cream and see if that helps and maybe eliminate the wine. I have been using that as a “treat” at night. It is a dry red-pinor noir. Dinner is usually fish, chicken or pork with veggies. I do not always eat beans or lentils with dinner but work them in when I can. It is a challenge to cook for myself and then my husband and kids.
I didn’t realize just how many calories I was consuming, so tracking what I ate helped keep me aware of what I was putting in my mouth. I don’t count calories anymore, but I track macros (protein, carb, and fat grams) to keep my diet balanced and in check. Macros allows me to have my carrots and cake, too! If you’re interested in learning more or want to work together, check out my macro plan options!
Any movement counts. The numbers are daunting: The 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans suggest a minimum of 150 minutes (2.5 hour) of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week (walking briskly, playing doubles tennis, raking leaves), or 75 minutes (one hour, 15 minutes) of vigorous-intensity activity (running, a strenuous fitness class, carrying groceries up stairs), as well as muscle-strengthening activities (resistance training and weightlifting) two days a week. But if you want to lose weight, work up to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity activity a week, or 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity. “But doing something just a few minutes a day to get started has benefits,” said Piercy. “So parking farther away when you’re running errands, getting up from our desks and going down the hall instead of sending an email -- those are things people can start incorporating into their daily lives now that may be a little easier than saying, ‘Oh my gosh, I have to figure out how to fit 2.5 hours of activity into my week.” If you are starting from zero physical activity, Dr. Jakicic suggests taking a 10-minute walk five times a week, shooting for 50 minutes a week, and building on from there once it becomes habit.
Starving yourself is certainly not a good idea. But if you're otherwise healthy, a brief period of extreme calorie restriction isn't likely to hurt you. You should tell your doctor what you're doing, and be sure to include protein in your diet (70 to 100 grams per day). Take a multivitamin, and eat potassium-rich foods (tomatoes, oranges, and bananas).
In terms of exercise, I kept working hard. Exercising was one of my priorities and so I fit it into my schedule every day, usually on my lunch break. I exercised 6 days of week, and the bulk of my exercise was focused on running with the occasional lifting or circuit (my amazing sister, Lindsay, a certified personal trainer, created lifting plans for me). It was important to me at this point in my journey to have a cardio-based plan and running seemed the most practical. I started running over the summer (it was a SLOW journey of gradually increasing the time and speed on the treadmill every day) so by the time it came around to fall I could actually go run on the roads and continue to improve my endurance. (Note: I am planning on writing a whole post about my relationship with running because it has grown into such an important part of my life. Running used to be extremely hard and I hated it but stuck with it because I knew it would be good for me, but now I love it and the way it makes me feel). 
You can do any type of cardiovascular exercise, just make sure it’s something you like – or if you have no particular preference just stay away from those actives you know you do not enjoy. Cardio is an integral part of this weight loss workout plan and it is important that you like what you are doing in order to stick with it, not just for the duration of this program, but also afterwards. You can do your cardio workouts outdoors or on cardiovascular machinery indoors. If you are carrying a lot of weight, it’s best to start with low impact exercise such as walking, swimming or using the elliptical machine. If you have access to an elliptical machine/ cross-trainer, give it a try. I love this piece of cardio equipment, as it allows you to burn as many calories as jogging/ running, but is low-impact. Exercising on the elliptical also “feels” much easier than jogging/ running, allowing you to exercise for longer and burn more calories.
Additionally, Certified Health Coach John Vercelletto pushes back on the low-fat fad, popular with individuals past the age of 50. He says that our bodies need healthy dietary fat, like avocados, olive oil, and butter, but low-fat products often increase sugar—which, by now, most of us realize isn’t good for our health. Dr. Ayoob seconds this mindset, and simply suggests watching portion sizes when it comes to good fats like avocados or nuts.
I can’t tell you how many women come up to me and coyly ask “what about loose extra skin after weight loss?” and my answer is always “exercise babe!” Exercise will tone up your body and give you that lean look you want. If you are exercising while you lose weight it is even better, you will be tightening and toning as you’re losing the weight. But for those of you who have already lost the weight you can still get that toned body you want, and you will get it with exercise, babe!
Make sure to program your cardio exercise in with your weight training the right way, though — a 2017 study found that performing cardio and weight training workouts on alternate days was far more effective for burning belly fat than stacking the workouts on top of each other in the same session. Put the two together, and watch that unhealthy midsection shrink.
Steady-state cardio (referred to as simply “cardio” on the weight loss plan below) means you’ll be exercising (e.g. power walking, jogging, running, cycling) at about the same level of intensity for the duration of the workout. Steady-state cardio workouts tend to be longer. Cardiovascular interval training (IT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT), on the other hand, are a shorter workout, but alternate between higher levels of intensity and recovery intervals.  Interval training is a proven technique to massively boost metabolism and torch body fat. HIIT (short bursts of all out exercise e.g. sprinting) is a more intense form of interval training, so beginners should start with regular interval training.
Good news – I lost that 1 kilo again. Yeah! Without buying anything other than a library ticket go and look for info on food combining and natural hygiene. Also a 1980s book that is a way of life that worked for many is also extremely informative about what food groups are and what a food group actually is eg what proteins actually are and where to find them; how our body works in assimilating and getting rid of waste. I’ve pulled out my old copy of the book again and am having a go at the suggestion for dividing the day into 3 cycles : noon – 8 pm to eat; 8- 4 am for body to assimilate; 4-noon to get rid of waste. It depends on what you combine to eat together ie not carbs and proteins in same meal but you can have as much veg or salad with either. Not fruit – that’s for the morning and as much as you want till noon.
Jen is a pillar of inspiration in the weight loss blogging community. She started a blog called “PastaQueen” in 2005 to document her journey. After losing nearly 180 pounds and sharing all about it on PastaQueen, Jen decided it was time for a change. While she knew that she should always cherish her weight loss, her life (and blog) now focus on weight management and a host of other wellness topics. She continues to encourage others as they start their own passage into fitness.
Stress kills your health and is your biggest enemy when you’re trying to lose weight. Proven stress relievers are exercise (do it regularly — every day in some form), meditation (start with 5 slow, steady breaths through your nose and repeat), journaling, and happy hobbies (gardening, making art). You may need to invent your own brand of stress relief to find what works for you.

Fiber is a type of carbohydrate that your body can't digest, and it helps regulate the body's use of sugar as it slowly passes through your digestive system. Increasing your daily fiber intake can result in greater satisfaction after meals, less blood-sugar spiking and crashing, and subsequent reductions in the amount of calories eaten for the rest of the day. When trying to trim belly fat, aim to get at least 25 grams of fiber in your diet each day. Foods that are rich in fiber include pulses, like lentils and beans; apples and pears, with the skin; nuts and seeds; and cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and Brussels sprouts. Try this recipe for Tabbouleh with Chickpeas for a fiber-packed side dish or a one-dish dinner!


Oh and Sara and I actually connected thanks to Pinterest! She had seen one of my posts on Pinterest and when she saw my website and read my weight loss journey, she saw that we had a lot in common. We emailed a bit, then talked on the phone, and we clicked instantly. It was, without a doubt, a God-led meeting and we have both been so blessed by every part of our friendship and business partnership!

One easy trick if you're a pasta fan is to swap out white pasta for the wonderfully named courgetti (spaghetti made from spiralizing courgette). You’ll hardly notice the difference when you’re eating it, but you’ll be fuller for longer despite consuming fewer calories. When you consume fewer calories, your body can go to your fat reserves for energy, rather than just burning off the food you’ve eaten.  


A 2014 Harvard study found that men who did twenty minutes of daily weight training had less of an increase in age-related abdominal fat compared with men who spent the same amount of time doing aerobic activities, and other studies have shown similar levels of success when guys hit the gym to cut down on fat. The implication: Guys can cut belly fat most efficiently with weight training.
This new technology has been proven to reduce inches from target areas such as the tummy, back, hips, thighs, buttocks, chin, neck and arms; contour and reshape the body; and tighten and tone loose skin. During clinical trials, the ZERONA body slimming system has been proven to result in an average of 3.6 inches lost from patients’ waist, hips and thighs.

Hi Adam, I was searching for a source that would help me lose 40 pounds in two months and pretty much you had a similar story to me. I find it so hard and frustrating finding a diet that works for me and I weigh 195. I’m a singer and a performer and its really uncomfortable with all this weight on me and I need to lose 40 pounds by the summer of july. I sincerely need help and from what I see, I feel you can help. If you can please email me it’ll be well appreciated.
So here’s where I have to say that I AM NOT a dieting or fitness professional. Even having to write that is humorous. I am absolutely NEITHER of those. And that is one huge reason that I was so reluctant to share my story. Yet as my sweet friends told me over our trip last month, my blog is to inspire and to them, my weight loss story could be inspiring. So once again, I am not a professional so please DO NOT take anything I say as advise. This is just my story and if it motivates one single person to change their lifestyle, I would be absolutely thrilled to have shared these glorious images 😉
“Going public with my weight loss goals helped me lose 91 pounds. I joined the 61 Day Health Challenge, a program sponsored by my employer, the Detroit Medical Center. Suddenly, I was accountable to all of my colleagues, not just myself. And the amount of support I was shown was enough motivation to propel me into a new world of healthy eating and healthy living.” —Mo Minard, 43, MSN, RN, EMT-P, Director of Emergency Services for Detroit Medical Center
Raising a child on your own is no easy feat, but doing it while getting fit and making some major changes towards healthy living is not something to scoff at. It certainly doesn't stop Mindy, a single mom and a true inspiration to the weight loss blogging community. She is actively immersed in it, living every single day by her philosophy to get fit and have fun doing it, all while taking her thousands of fans along with her. Her blog recaps her numerous (and quite impressive) races, yummy healthy recipes, product reviews (that you can actually use) and much, much more. Definitely not one to miss.
If you’re looking for a weight loss blog that has it all, then Emily may be your girl. Sure, Emily is on a mission to lose weight from her previous 355-pound frame (back in August 2008), but she also seeks to live life to the fullest, share her happy ventures with others and, of course, brandish yummy recipes and photos of all the most delicious (and healthy) foods she can. She’s down over 65 pounds since starting her blog in 2010, and every day she continues to embrace healthier living while her many fans follow along.
A diet that’s low in fat and carbohydrates can improve artery function, according to a 2012 study by Johns Hopkins researchers. After six months, those on the low-carb diet had lost more weight, and at a faster pace. But in both groups, when weight was lost—and especially when belly fat shrank—the arteries were able to expand better, allowing blood to travel more freely. The study shows that you don’t have to cut out all dietary fat to shrink belly fat. For heart health, simply losing weight and exercising seems to be key. 

Schedule a workout with a friend—you'll be less likely to skip out on it knowing that she is expecting you to show up. Or, use your workouts as "dates" where you can catch up with friends. "Every Wednesday, I take a Zumba class with the friends I met at Weight Watchers," says Michele August, who lost 117 pounds. "It's our weekly girls' night. We catch up, bond, and even enjoy a fun workout that burns a bunch of calories!" 


It can actually help you cut back on calories. That's because capsaicin, a compound found in jalapeno and cayenne peppers, may (slightly) increase your body's release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, which can speed up your ability to burn calories. What's more, eating hot peppers may help slow you down. You're less likely to wolfed down that plate of spicy spaghetti —— and therefore stay more mindful of when you're full. Some great adds: Ginger, turmeric, black pepper, oregano, and jalapenos.
So how does this work? A quick run-through: The first tip was to eat low carb. This is because a low-carb diet lowers your levels of the fat-storing hormone insulin, allowing your fat deposits to shrink and release their stored energy. This tends to cause you to want to consume fewer calories than you expend – without hunger – and lose weight. Several of the tips mentioned above are about fine-tuning your diet to better this effect.
I tracked everything from fat, carbs and protein.  I was eating what I was suppose to and within 5 months, I dropped the remaining 10lbs.  I did it, I met my goal!  As of today, I am trying to maintain my weight, which in my opinion is harder then losing it.  I get so afraid of putting the weight back on, since it’s so easy to lose motivation.  Just because you meet your goal doesn’t mean you can go back to the way it was.  That’s when I decided I needed to make this my lifestyle.  I started reading up on healthy foods, different exercises, and I kept calculating my calories.  I was a true calorie counter, every bite I ate, I tracked it.  If I didn’t know the calories, I wouldn’t eat it.   I was having allot of fun.  I was exercising and maintaining my weight!  Then it happened.  Something was brought to my attention from my friends and family, I was obsessed they told me!  Obsessed with what?  Eating right and exercising?  It was the calorie counting!  People told me I’m not enjoying life if I calculate every bite.  Can I do this forever?  Well, maybe,I am pretty dedicated after all, but who wants to?  I have learned so much over the past couple of years, about eating, exercising and most importantly myself.  I have a lot of will power and I know how to be healthy, so I should be able to do this!!!!  
Probably. If you have overweight or obesity, your risk for many health problems is higher than that of women who are at a normal weight. Even a small amount of weight loss can lower your risk for or even prevent health problems like diabetes and heart disease. Calculate your body mass index (BMI) to see whether you’re at a healthy weight. If you have overweight or obesity, start by making small changes to your eating habits and getting more physical activity.
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